Friday, 7 November 2014

Smart Notes on Indian (Human) Geography Part - 10

POPULATION (Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition)

1.       India’s population is larger than the total population of North America, South America and Australia put together.
2.       More often, it is argued that such a large population invariably puts pressure on its limited resources and is also responsible for many socio-economic problems in the country.

Distribution of Population

1.       Uttar Pradesh has the highest population followed by Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh
2.       U.P., Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh along with Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Gujarat, together account for about 76 per cent of the total population of the country.
3.       On the other hand, share of population is very small in the states like Jammu & Kashmir (0.98%), Arunachal Pradesh (0.11%) and Uttaranchal (0.83%) in spite of these states having fairly large geographical area
4.       Such an uneven spatial distribution of population in India suggests a close relationship between population and physical, socioeconomic and historical factors.
5.       Consequently, we observe that the North Indian Plains, deltas and Coastal Plains have higher proportion of population than the interior districts of southern and central Indian States
6.       Himalayas, some of the north eastern and the western states. However, development of irrigation (Rajasthan), availability of mineral and energy resources (Jharkhand) and development of transport network (Peninsular States) have resulted in moderate to high proportion of population in areas which were previously very thinly populated
7.       Among the socio-economic and historical factors of distribution of population, important ones are evolution of settled agriculture and agricultural development
8.       Pattern of human settlement; development of transport network, industrialisation and urbanisation.
9.       The concentration of population remains high because of an early history of human settlement and development
10.   On the other hand, the urban regions of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Pune, Ahmedabad, Chennai and Jaipur have high concentration of population
11.   On the other hand, the urban regions of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Pune, Ahmedabad, Chennai and Jaipur have high concentration of population

Density of Population

1.       The density of population in India (2001) is 313 persons per sq. km and ranks third among the most densely populated countries of Asia following Bangladesh (849 persons) and Japan (334 persons).
2.       There has been a steady increase of about 200 persons per sq. km over the last 50 years as the density of population increased
3.       From 117 persons/ sq. km in 1951 to 313 persons/sq. km in 2001
4.       This ranges from as low as 13 persons per sq. km in Arunachal Pradesh to 9,340 persons in the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
5.       Among the northern Indian States, West Bengal (903), Bihar (880) and Uttar Pradesh (690) have higher densities
6.       While Kerala (819) and Tamil Nadu (480) have higher densities among the peninsular Indian states
7.       States like Assam, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Jharkhand, and Orissa have moderate densities

Growth of Population

1.       Growth of population is the change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points of time
2.       Its rate is expressed in percentage.

Population growth has two components 

1.       Namely; natural and induced
2.       While the natural growth is analysed by assessing the crude birth and death rates
3.       Induced components are explained by the volume of inward and outward movement of people in any given area the growth rate of population in India over the last one century has been caused by annual birth rate and death rate and rate of migration and thereby shows different trends.
4.       There are four distinct phases of growth identified within this period:
5.       Phase I: The period from 1901-1921 is referred to as a period of stagnant or stationary phase of growth of India’s population
6.       Even recording a negative growth rate during 1911-1921
7.       Phase II: The decades 1921-1951 are referred to as the period of steady population growth.
8.       An overall improvement in health and sanitation throughout the country brought down the mortality rate.
9.       Phase III: The decades 1951-1981 are referred to as the period of population explosion in India
10.   This was caused by a rapid fall in the mortality rate but a high fertility rate of population in the country.
11.   Phase IV: In the post 1981 till present, the growth rate of country’s population though remained high
12.   A downward trend of crude birth rate is held responsible for such a population growth
13.   It has been projected by World Development Report that population of India will touch 1,350 million by 2025.

Regional Variation in Population Growth

1.       The States like Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Pondicherry, and Goa show a low rate of growth not exceeding 20 per cent over the decade.
2.       Kerala registered the lowest growth rate (9.4) not only in this group of states but also in the country as a whole
3.       A continuous belt of states from west to east in the north-west, north, and north central parts of the country has relatively high growth rate than the southern states.
4.       It is in this belt comprising Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Madhya Pradesh, Sikkim, Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, and Jharkhand, the growth rate on the average remained 20-25 per cent
5.       An important aspect of population growth in India is the growth of its adolescents.
6.       At present the share of adolescents i.e. up to the age group of 10-19 years is about 22 per cent
7.       Among which male adolescents constitute 53 per cent and female adolescents constitute 47 per cent
8.       The adolescent population, though, regarded as the youthful population having high potentials, but at the same time they are quite vulnerable if not guided and channelized properly.

Population Composition

·         Analysis of age and sex, place of residence, ethnic characteristics, tribes, language, religion, marital status, literacy and education, occupational characteristics, etc.

Rural – Urban Composition

1.       Composition of population by their respective places of residence is an important indicator of social and economic characteristics
2.       72 per cent of its total population lives in villages
3.       The distribution of rural population is not uniform throughout the country
4.       States like Bihar and Sikkim have very high percentage of rural population
5.       The states of Goa and Maharashtra have only little over half of their total population residing in villages
6.       The size of villages also varies considerably
7.       It is less than 200 persons in the hill states of north-eastern India
8.       Western Rajasthan and Rann of Kuchchh
9.       As high as 17 thousand persons in the states of Kerala and in parts of Maharashtra.
10.   The proportion of urban population (27.8 per cent) in India is quite low but it is showing a much faster rate of growth over the decades
11.   In fact since 1931, the growth rate of urban population has accelerated due to enhanced economic development and improvement in health and hygienic conditions.

Linguistic Composition

1.       India is a land of linguistic diversity
2.       According to Grierson (Linguistic Survey of India, 1903 – 1928) there were 179 languages and as many as 544 dialects in the country
3.       In the context of modern India, there are about 18 scheduled languages (1991 census) and a number of non-scheduled languages
4.       Among the scheduled languages, the speakers of Hindi have the highest percentage (40.42)
5.       The smallest language groups are Kashmiri and Sanskrit speakers (0.01 per cent each).
Linguistic Classification
1.       The speakers of major Indian languages belong to four language families
2.       Which have their sub-families and branches or groups
·         Austric (Nishada) 1.38%
·         Dravidian (Dravida) 20%
·         Sino-Tibetan (Kirata) 0.85%
·         Indo – European (Aryan) 73%

Religious Composition

1.       Religion is one of the most dominant forces affecting the cultural and political life of the most of Indians.
2.       Muslims, the largest religious minority, are concentrated in Jammu & Kashmir, certain districts of West Bengal and Kerala
3.       Many districts of Uttar Pradesh, in and around Delhi and in Lakshadweep.
4.       They form majority in Kashmir valley and Lakshadweep
5.       The Christian population is distributed mostly in rural areas of the country
6.       The main concentration is observed along the Western coast around Goa, Kerala and also in the hill states of Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Chotanagpur area and Hills of Manipur
7.       Sikhs are mostly concentrated in relatively small area of the country, particularly in the states of Punjab, Haryana and Delhi.
8.       Jains and Buddhists, the smallest religious groups in India have their concentration only in selected areas of the country.
9.       Major concentration in the urban areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra
10.   While the Buddhists are concentrated mostly in Maharashtra.
11.   The other areas of Buddhist majority are Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, and Ladakh in Jammu & Kashmir, Tripura, and Lahul and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh.
12.   The other religions of India include Zoroastrians, tribal and other indigenous faiths and beliefs.

Composition of Working Population

1.       The population of India according to their economic status is divided into three groups
·         Main workers
·         Marginal workers
·         Non-workers.
Standard Census Definition

·         Main Worker is a person who works for at least 183 days in a year
·         Marginal Worker is a person who works for lessthan183daysinayear
·         It is observed that in India, the proportion of workers (both main and marginal) is only 39 per cent (2001)
2.       Leaving a vast majority of 61 per cent as non-workers.
3.       This indicates an economic status in which there is a larger proportion of dependent population,
4.       Further indicating possible existence of large number of unemployed or under employed people.
5.       The proportion of working population, of the states and Union Territories show a moderate variation from about 25 per cent in Goa to about 53 per cent in Mizoram
6.       The states with larger percentages of workers are Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Meghalaya
7.       Among the Union Territories, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu have higher participation rate.
8.       In the context of a country like India, the work participation rate tends to be higher
9.       In the areas of lower levels of economic development since number of manual workers are needed to perform the subsistence or near subsistence economic activities.

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